Beauty and Politics
Without any doubt, in the 20th century the attitude to art was considerably changed, since at that time the concept of beauty as the fundamental feature of art was completely perplexing. At the beginning of the 20th century art was distinguished as means of expansion the politics to the masses, in other words, it was the motto of politics. The important turning point in the history of art goes back to 1993 when the University of Texas in Austin organized a conference devoted to the vitally of art as means of beauty comparing to socio-economic importance of art forms. The participants of this conference claimed that the art lost its initial significance to present out of the ordinary life which does not burden humans with their routine surrounding. In this case, if an artist demonstrates something that is out of human world outlook, his/ her art form will definitely lose its popularity regarding its unusual style. Consequently, human consciousness does not want to perceive new waves of art considering them as ugly things. Moreover, at that time the concept of beauty was completely dethroned, since art was identified as an alienated form of getting satisfaction from experiencing certain kind of feelings and emotions that are evoked owing to contemplation of art. In this case, beauty has gained new features, known as catharsis that helps humans to get an absolute satisfaction experiencing the pain and sorrow. Furthermore, the concept of beauty was amplified trough a consolation, since it helps to outlast despite problems, diseases, and pain. Additionally, art represents ourselves being a complexity of id, ego, and super ego which can be in connection or in dissonance; however, it is still a mirror of human inner world. All in all, humans should broaden their consciousness and try to find the purpose of depicting war, blood, terror, years of constant humiliation, and dictatorship in order to understand the beauty of art, its prime meaning, and purifying features that will help to distinguish the pure art forms that are free from ideology and political manipulation.
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Beauty and Sublimity
Undoubtedly, the concept of sublimity as a fundamental challenge to beauty goes back to the era of Enlightenment when Hegel published his lectures about aesthetics. However, the main breakthrough in the field of sublimity investigation was seen in Barnett’s Newman works. This American artist affirmed that the era of sublimity dominates in the society. Moreover, Newman pointed out that nowadays a struggle for defining art as the form of exaltation or decline started. Furthermore, Barnett distinguished the main difference between American and European ways of interpreting beauty and sublimity. According to his conclusion, European art fully follows the Renaissance ideas and is unable to move to the next cultural movement as American culture did. Moreover, the bipolarity of beauty and sublimity is conveyed in Kant’s works where beauty is described as an absolute form with definite boundaries; on the contrary, sublimity is identified as a formless object. Since that time various artists and scholars were tried to find out the main features of sublimity, such as its adherence to seize, mysterious world, and depiction of fear. Furthermore, Nabokow described sublimity as the process of reaching the limits of human consciousness, while there are some things that cannot be understood and pictured. In this case, mysteriousness and secrets should exist in nature, since humans should always have a goal to reach. All in all, it is highly recommended to differentiate the concept of sublimity and beauty, while these ideas belong to different spheres of human interpretation of the world. Sublimity is defined as an ability to think about the surrounding by making an impact on personal mind to surpass every expression of sense. Moreover, sublimity correlates with different merits of human life, such as artistic, aesthetic, intellectual, metaphysical, physical, moral, or spiritual. On the contrary, beauty is the personal consideration of art as the most valuable form of expressing dreams and thoughts concerning life conditions.