Without any doubt, in the scientific world there are various approaches that attempt to amplify how human individuality correlates with health. The most vital theory among these approaches is the personality illness connection, since it shows the dynamics, and relationships amidst personality and health. According to this theory, there are five models that explain this connection, such as the interactional, the transactional, the health behavior, the predisposition, and the illness behavior models (Randy & Bass, 2004).
The interactional model shows how people can cope with their problems that affect their health by including three appraisals, such as positive, negative, and neutral. For instance, a girl has caught a cold; firstly, she can be happy, since she does not need to go to the university; secondly, she is neither happy nor upset; thirdly, she is disappointed, while she has to delay tomorrow’s date. Thus, it is clearly seen that coping response has a significant influence on duration and frequency of a stressful event.
The transactional model recognizes the vitality of human attitude to the event and their incentives to change the situation. For example, a person who is suffering from cancer understands the seriousness of the situation and vitality to take measures in order to ameliorate the situation. Consequently, it is evident that this person can influence the flow of events.
In the health behavior model individuals influence health condition indirectly, through improvement of health or its deterioration. For instance, a child who attends classes of PE feels healthy and energetic. In this example, it is clearly seen that this child does not have any intentions to improve his/ her health; however, he has done it.
The predisposition model represents the importance of a third variable that considerably influences the level of stress and disease. For instance, a person, who lives in a room that is painted in red color, can feel anger or flow of energy. In this case, a red room is a third factor that can increase or decrease stress level and can precipitate the development of disease.
The illness behavior model shows the degree of human perception of bodily sensations and their influence on the occurrence of illness. In this model stress plays an important role, since it represents human interpretation and response to surrounding. For example, a man is disappointed, since he is suffering from a coronary artery disease. His behavior can be amplified either as withdrawing into himself or showing the incentives to have healthy lifestyle.
In the framework of investigating the personality psychology it is highly recommended to pay attention to three fundamental assumptions of psychoanalytic theory, such as basic instincts, unconscious motivation, and psychic determinism. Basic instincts show human understanding of libido (life) and thanatos (death). For example, humans comprehend that year by year they are closer to the death. The concept of unconscious motivation represents the individual control of assaultive and sexual incentives by putting them into unconscious. For instance, a person cannot stay in a long-term relationship, since he/ she always finds a vital reason to break up. This can be amplified by the fact that this individual has an unendurable desire to be loved, but he/ she is afraid of being rejected. Psychic determinism demonstrates the logic of human life and its prudence. For example, if a person misses the bus, it means that this person wants to avoid meeting with someone. Consequently, it is obvious that nothing happens unexpectedly, there is always a clear explanation of events (Randy & Bass, 2004).
All in all, the core aim of the personality illness connection is to promote health, and to introduce appropriate management of disease. Moreover, three main assumptions of psychoanalytic theory will help to understand the psychology of human perception, behavior, action, attitude to difficult situations, and coping response.
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