Without any doubt, in the 21st century society has faced a big health problem, commonly known as cancer. Since 1950, the complete prevalence of cancer has grown to 44 percent, breast and male colon cancer up to 60 percent and prostate cancer up to 100 percent in particular. Generally, 45 percent of Americans are supposed to face cancer (Alison, 2001). According to the definition, cancer is considered as a complicated lethal disease that is caused mostly by environmental issues. It can easily modify genes and in most cases give rise to extensive number of unhealthy cells. The abnormal cells tend to ruin the normal tissue and while circulating through the crucial organs further lead to disseminated diseases with the inevitable death. A carcinogen, a substance which causes cancer, prevails in food, water, air, chemicals and also in the sunlight to that people are vulnerable. Due to the fact that epithelium protects the skin, lines the digestive and respiratory tracts and assimilates ingested carcinogens, it is not surprising that approximately 90 percent of cancers takes place in epithelia.
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In the framework of distinguishing peculiarities of this serious disease, it is highly recommended to analyze its main methods of diagnosing in order to prevent its circulation in human body. Undoubtedly, even in modern medical approaches there are no single tests that can accurately indicate that a person is suffering from cancer. In this case, it is advisable to evaluate patient’s history completely and make a physical examination along with diagnostic testing. Indisputably, it is required to make many tests in order to determine whether a person has cancer, or another condition that can further lead to cancer. However, there are several modern methods of diagnosing cancer, such as biopsy, sentinel node biopsy, endoscopy, blood tests, bone marrow aspiration, pap test, sputum analysis and bronchial washing analysis, imagine studies, and genetic analysis. Biopsy is a test in which a fine tipped needle is used in order to take a small sample of tissue from the suspected cancer. The procedure of sentinel node biopsy requires the excision and examination of the closest and most important nodes near the cancer. The effectiveness of this method can be amplified by the fact that the professional medical examination of these lymph nodes can clearly show the presence of cancer in the organism, since they are the first location that contains cancer cells. Endoscopy is determined as a modern technique in which a flexible tube with a micro camera that is inserted into the body cavities. This device helps the doctors to analyze the suspicious area assiduously. Blood tests help to determine not only the normal blood cells, but also the specific tumor markers. Bone marrow aspiration helps to investigate which part of the bone marrow is affected with blood cancers leukemia. Pap test is determined as a routine test that can be used in order to take a sample of cells from a woman’s cervix and further diagnose this sample under the microscope. Undoubtedly, pap test is a modern medical opportunity that helps to detect various significant changes in the cells that can be the first indication of cancer or other conditions. Sputum analysis and bronchial washing analysis is applied inorder to determine the signs of lung and other respiratory cancers under the microscope. Imaging studies is a developed modern technique that diagnoses the signs of cancer and includes several subtypes, such as X-rays, mammogram, CAT scans, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of different parts of human body. Finally, one of the good methods of cancer diagnosis is genetic analysis that helps to investigate blood or bone marrow cells that are responsible for organizations of chromosomes. This analysis is used in determination of genetic mutations (Mandal, 2013).
Furthermore, it is highly recommended to determine the staging of cancer, while it helps to describe the extent and severity of a cancer and evaluate the appropriate measures of patient’s treatment. Scientists have distinguished the two major types of staging, such as clinical and pathological staging. First of all, clinical staging helps to distinguish an extent of caner based on the physical exam, imaging tests, and tumor biopsies. Indisputably, the clinical stage is an important key part that is applied in order to decide the best cancer treatment to use, to take the necessary measures in order to prevent the extent of cancer, and to analyze the cancer’s response to treatment. Secondly, pathological staging, commonly known as surgical staging, helps to investigate and accumulate gained knowledge about the cancer during the surgery. Undoubtedly, the pathological stage provides the health care team with more accurate information about cancer that can be used to predict the appropriate treatment response and outcomes. Undoubtedly, the TNM system is recognized as the most commonly applied staging systems that is based on the extent of the tumor (T), lymph nodes (N), and metastasis (M). A Roman number from I to IV is added to each letter in order to indicate the extent and size of the tumor. Stage IV (4) is the highest and the most serious stage of cancer that shows the extension of cancer into another organ. Secondly, stage I, II, and III shows the great seize of tumor and spread of the cancer near lymph nodes. According to this staging system, it is clearly seen that higher numbers are indication of the extension of this disease (Edge & Byrd, 2010).
Undoubtedly, cancer considerably influences human organism by infecting all organs and deteriorating overall health condition. The complications of cancer can become apparent in unusual immune system reactions to cancer; owing to extension of cancer, the body’s immune system is seriously affected by cancer and this condition can dramatically influence healthy cells. For instance, paraneoplastic syndromes can lead to constant difficulties in walking and seizures. Moreover, the complication of cancer can be evident in the rise of deep depression and nervous breakdowns. This acute condition of cancer has a terrible impact on human mental system, while in such condition patients can avoid communication with other people, lose control of themselves, and withdrawn into themselves. Furthermore, one of the forms of cancer complication is nausea, since strong medicine can be differently adopted in human organism due to its particular physical conditions. Additionally, there are other types of cancer complication, such as fatigue, difficult breathing, consstipation, skin problems, a strong pain, sleep disorders, and hair loss.
It is generally true that treatment of cancer can have various side effects. Scientists have distinguished the two major side effects, such as physical and psychological side effect. Physical side effects can include pain, nausea, anemia, fatigue, lymphedema, the rise of infections, sexual side effects in men / women, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy effects. Undoubtedly, physical side effects can appear due to application of strong medicine and various medical devices that help to ameliorate this serious health condition. Psychological side effects consist of inability to cope with cancer in everyday life, fear, distress, anxiety, and depression. Indisputably, psychological side effects can arise due to patient’s mental exhaustion concerning the extension of cancer and inability of getting rapid recovery.
In order to prevent or slow down the cancer development, it is recommended to resort to a psychosocial support, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. If the tumor is amenable to surgery, then it is the only effective way to get rid of the disease. Radiotherapy is a combination of anticancer drugs. Chemotherapy is an effective method of cancer cure as well; however, patients are always suffering from various side effects, such as hair loss or even anemia and infections.
Apart from conventional treatment, there exists specified alternative therapy in order to amplify the traditional improvement. It is believed that cancer can be treated by means of non-toxic organic components accompanied by conventional therapy. The first step to fight with cancer is ‘starving’ cancer cells. According to scientists, cancer is considered as sugar-feeder. Therefore, it is important to reduce the sugar intake up to 90 percent in order to form a low-sugar environment. Instead, carbon carbohydrates will be able to substitute the energy losses. Another possible way to combat cancer is to oxygenate the body, since cancer cannot coexist with oxygen. Everyday aerobic exercise is the easiest way to stimulate oxygen. What is more, simple deep breathing can also help if the person is too weak to perform physical exercises. Moreover, ozone and hydrogen therapy can work together with the physical exercises (Lam, 2003). Not least pivotal element of alternative cancer treatment is a balanced level of toxins. A big amount of toxins such as mercury, arsenic, and cadmium regularly amass in human body for years. Detoxification is a crucial process, which cleans up the ecosystem and helps to revive the lost cells.
All in all, cancer is a systematic disease with a great deal of perilous cells within the whole body. In this case, scientists cannot find alternative or conventional treatment that can be the most effective in the abolishment of all cancer cells. The reason of that is obvious, since global biological changes dramatically influence human health. Moreover, most of people used to have unhealthy lifestyles that can be explained by smoking, alcohol drinking, eating of unhealthy food, and behaving with their own health in a terrible manner. Consequently, it is vital to preserve a healthy lifestyle and look after the health state.