Table of Contents
The Dinka community faces environmental problems that pose health threats to the general population. They include insufficient water supply and poor waste disposal which threaten the lives and the health of the population. The next step of the MAP-IT approach utilized in the paper is the development of a care plan for the aggregate and the description of how it would be implemented. The diagnosis involves restorative practices which reduce the impact of the health hazards, supportive practices which alter the environment to support healthy conditions, and primitive practices that encourage healthy living patterns. The care plan includes the necessary concepts of addressing environmental factors that affect the community. Thus, the current development-care plan attempts to explore the risks that threaten the Dinka people and, at the same time, provides interventions and a data management plan that will protect the community from the health hazards.
Before the diagnosis, an assessment was performed. In this phase, data concerning the community’s state of health are gathered, including examining health trends of the community over the past years. The diagnosis then identifies and describes the health problems. There is a routine consideration of all the environmental factors which pose threats to the community’s health. The following are the health risks identified during the assessment.
- Throwing waste without properly disposing of it. The assessment discovered that the litter was thrown everywhere, which propagated the spread of diseases.
- Absence of burn pits. The community does not have any pits for burning litter when significant amount of waste is accumulated.
- Blockage of sewages that pollute the environment. Blocked sewages have not been attended, which has polluted the environment by emitting an awful odor.
- Waste production from the factories contaminating water sources. Oil refining factories discharge their waste into rivers used by the community for water consumption, which has propagated the spread of waterborne diseases.
- Leakage of oil tanks into water sources. Old and worn out oil tanks leak oil into water sources apart from posing a health hazard. Consequently, it has led to the extinction of some fish species.
Failure of the Local Agencies
- Absence of measures taken to conserve water sources. Most water sources that serve the community are polluted, and the agencies have not made any efforts to clean them.
- Inadequate water sources. The available water sources are not enough to serve the growing population, which has created a strain on the available sources.
- Absence of appropriate strategies for cleaning-up the dirty environment. The local agencies have no laid down strategies to clean the polluted environment.
- Absence of adequate hospitals to cater for patients, especially if there is an outbreak of waterborne and airborne diseases. Polluted environment and water have led to the prevalence of both waterborne and airborne diseases. As a result, there is a congestion of patients in the public hospital which is not adequately facilitated to provide services to the large population.
- Absence of education on sanitary measures. It is evident from the environmental pollution that the community lacks education on hygiene issues. The Dinka people should be educated on the correct waste disposal measures and the water treatment to reduce the impacts of the pollution (Cairncross, Bartram, Cumming, & Brocklehurst, 2010).
The local agencies should create a team that will handle the issues affecting the Dinka community. The formed team will be required to perform the following tasks:
- Create an environmental cleaning program that will maintain sanity in the environment.
- Solve the water pollution problem by restricting factories from disposing of wastes in the water bodies. They should further form a water cleaning program that will ensure that water resources are regularly cleaned.
- Sensitize the community to the health threats facing them. The community awareness will be achieved by organizing educational programs, where they the Dinka people will be taught on hygiene measures. They ought to be educated on incorrect waste disposal and ways of treating water for safe drinking. Creating awareness is the most important role of the team because individual sensitization marks the beginning of a change in the whole community. Besides being educated on the environment, the community should be taught on sanitation at home such as hand washing (Sigel, Altantuul, & Basandorj, 2012).
- Involve the government to provide adequate facilities to the public hospital. Enough facilities will curb the spread of the airborne and waterborne diseases.
- Build more water reservoirs to serve the whole community. The community needs to learn about water conservation to prevent wastage of the few available sources (Bartram & Cairncross, 2010).
Disasters Threatening the Community
The Dinka community is mainly threatened by the hazards associated with inadequate water supplies, waste, and water pollution. These conditions pose grave threats to the health of the community. The following is the summary of the disasters that are threatening the Dinka community.
- Food contamination. The community members are at risk of consuming contaminated food due to lack of training in home sanitation. The community is also at risk of hand to mouth transmission of diseases. This occurs when there is inadequate water to be used for personal hygiene. The water and food consumed may also be contaminated with the dirty environment.
- Contamination and depletion of water resources. There is a poor management of human excreta, which undermines the safety of water resources.
- Inadequate water supplies. This issue has hindered the quality provision of services at the health centers and it affects both the health workers and health facilities.
- Pathogenic risks due to the exposure to clinical waste, which may result in contracting HIV, Hepatitis B, and hemorrhagic fever. Research reveals that 30% of the medical waste is infectious.
- Malaria outbreak and other vector-borne diseases as a result of dumpy and piled wastes that host vectors like mosquitoes and flies.
Disaster Management Plan
The above-listed disasters can be solved through a comprehensive disaster management plan that will cater for the water and waste issues experienced. The proposed disaster management plan involves the following activities:
- Creating and maintaining water systems and the environment’s sanitation.
- Conducting assessments of vulnerability of the water supplies and sanitation systems to evaluate the ability to provide essential services during a disaster.
- Engaging the community in planning services of safe water drinking and safe waste disposal. Furthermore, the community should be engaged in identifying socially and culturally acceptable interventions that will provide long-lasting solutions.
- Sensitizing the community to ensure a multi-sectoral approach to the disaster management for safe water drinking and waste disposal.
- Providing the community with enough water resources and accessible sanitation services in times of a disaster to manage incidences of contamination.
- Preventing the spread of infections by educating the community and promoting hygienic issues such as hand washing.
- Making sure that temporary shelters and camps are accessible and provide safe water sources and sanitation.
- Ensuring an adequate supply of water for health facilities to support the provision of quality health care services during emergencies.
- Guaranteeing water treatment and disinfection.
- Preventing defecation by children in places where they can contaminate water sources.
- Providing a safe means by which clinical waste can be discharged.
The above development care plan will be effective in solving the health risks which the Dinka community faces. The program has clearly outlined the assessment and interventions required to curb the problems. Therefore, the local agencies in the community should consider implementing this plan.