Without any doubt, in the 19th century the American society was facing various changes in the field of economy, legislation system, and social institutions. According to the definition, the Progressive Era is the age of progressive reforms, and the war between labor and capital that lasted from1890s to 1920s. This historic period had a big influence on all Americans, since the role of government in American society was considerably transformed. Moreover, this era commenced the application of new reforms which power and legacy continue to persist until modern times.
Among the most important turning points of the Progressive Era were the actual inception of the American oil industry in 1901 and the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1906. Undoubtedly, these fundamental historic stages in the Progressive Era have highly affected current society, economy, politics, and culture. First of all, the birth of American oil industry is dated from the 10th of January. Historically, at that time the “Sprindelop” was found on a salt dome in Texas. Nowadays, the drilling of Texas’s Sprindletop is identified as the main background of development of the American national oil sector. It is evident that the subsequent evolution of Texas’s Sprindletop significantly contributed to the expeditious growth of the economic, social, and political life in the USA. First of all, this development improved the international collaboration between the USA and European countries. Secondly, the oil industry became the primary labor market for millions of employees in the USA. Additionally, the American oil industry is determined as the biggest, the most powerful, and the most important leader of purchasing goods and services in America. Another vital historical turning point during the Progressive Era is the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1906. It is the time when the racial values and attitudes to discriminated people in the USA were changed to a great extent. Initially, the NAACP was called the National Negro Committee. It is vital to point out that during the Progressive Era, the majority of racial and women’s rights were disregarded (Sage, 2010). However, the establishment of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was identified as the first core principal of the rapid advancement of equality and human rights protection in the USA. The NAACP is the basis legal foundation that protects economic, educational, national, social, and political equality of human rights, in spite of their ethnicity. Until nowadays, this organization has significantly improved the rights of Afro-American population, changed the culture of race relations, protected vulnerable people from race discrimination, provided a new legislation system against hate crime, and implemented tolerance to cultural diversity in the USA.
Undoubtedly, in the 19th century the rise of industrialization, the development in economic, social, and political spheres considerably influenced the generally accepted gender roles of men and women. At that time, women were responsible for housekeeping and raising their children, while men were busy at their workplaces. It is clearly seen that the original gender roles were unchanged until the 19th: women assumed the role of mothers, while men assumed the role of breadwinner. On the geographical map, women’s suffrage was mostly located in the western frontier states. It can be explicated by the fact that the western states were the first to approve women’s right to vote. Moreover, in the west, the population was homogeneous, which significantly precipitated the implementation of women’s rights to vote. On the contrary, the eastern and the southern states were confident that women’s suffrage will dramatically influence the institute of family, and reduce the level of ethics and morality in the society. Furthermore, they proclaimed that if women are allowed to participate in the process of legislation and election, the divorce rate will considerably grow. Consequently, the end of hot debate about women’s suffrage amidst the western, eastern, and southern states were put at end after the ratification of the nineteenth Amendment on August 18, 1920. At that time, women gained the rights to vote (Bridget, 2012).
In the Progressive Era the rapid development and improvement of corporate legislation were clearly seen. The scholars determined the two most important points of legislation at that time, such as the establishment of the Commerce and Labor in 1903 and the adoption of the Hepburn Act in 1906. The United States Congress created the Department of Commerce and Labor (DOCL) in order to solve the labor-conflict issues. The DOCL was divided into two independent departments, the Department of Commerce and the Department of Labor, both of which continue to conduct the business to the present day. In 1906 the Hepburn Act was approved in order to control the existing railroad rates. This Act significantly improved the working conditions and reduced the level of issues amidst the employers and employees. Hereby, in 1916 the existing railroad corporations had to take decisive measures in order to establish an eight-hour working day. In the near future, the legislation of the Hepburn Act incapacitated the employers to exploit their employees.
Undeniably, the Progressive Era is famous for the shortest one-sided war commonly known as the war between the USA and Spain. This war significantly influenced the establishment of the American Empire. The first struggle between the USA and Spain was organized in Cuba in 1885. During that time Cuba was fighting for independence. The USA supported Cuba due to the fact that the business investments on this island were estimated at more than 50 million dollars. Moreover, the close collaboration with Cuba can bring an annual income around 100 million dollars. The Spanish-American War took place on two fronts such as the Caribbean and the Philippines islands. In this war, the USA won a decisive victory as it had better naval preparation. Consequently, the USA and Spain made peace on the first of October in 1898. After that war Cuba gained independence and the USA became an empire. According to Stromberg (1998), this war represented the American leadership in other, non-American territories. Consequently, the USA was determined as the most powerful country extending its leadership from the Caribbean Sea to the Far East.
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Historically, the Roaring Twenties is the period that lasted during the Progressive Era in the USA. This age was associated with the rise of jazz and freedom of American society. Unfortunately, the Roaring Twentieth is also famous for the American stock market crash that happened in on October 29, 1929. The scientists pointed out three major events of the great market crash, known as the Black Thursday (on October 24, 929), the Black Monday (on October 29, 1929), and the Black Tuesday (on October 29, 1929). Furthermore, before the Great Depression, the American society witnessed the greatest decline in the economic and social spheres. However, during that damnable time, Hoover’s administration did not provide any financial reassurance. This dramatic economic decline lasted until the adoption of the Square Deal by a new President Roosevelt. The beginning of the 20th century is characterized by the high unemployment rate (approximately 26%), the shortage of social insurance, and bank deposits. In 1933, Franklin Roosevelt introduced a new government-based policy known as the Square Deal. According to the definition, the Square Deal is a new model of government successful teamwork that was directed to the improvement of life standards. In public, the Square Deal is associated with the system of the three C’s including control of the teamwork, consumer protection, and conservation laws. Undoubtedly the market crash and Roosevelt’s Square Deal influenced the government to work for citizens in need. The core goal of government was to provide effective and high-qualified social support to the needy (Sage, 2010). Nowadays, the USA is famous for the desirable, expected, and professional government involvement in the social and economic life of the country.
All in all, the impact of the Progressive Era on the USA is tremendous since during that time, women gained the same rights as men in the legal framework. Moreover, the USA expended its imperialistic power from the Caribbean Sea to the Far East. Due to the development in the American oil industry in 1901, the USA significantly improved the international collaboration. Furthermore, during the Progressive Era, the rights of Afro-American people were considerably ameliorated since the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People was established. Finally, in this age, the government developed a fully-fledged policy focusing on the improvement of the working conditions, life standards, and financial revival in the USA.
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