Table of Contents
In most cases, people usually wonder what war is and what creates or dictate or fuel war. War is an organized and yet prolonged conflict carried out by the state and non-states individuals. It has a character of with extreme violence, death, social disruption, suffering of humans, pain and the destruction of economical features. It should be understood in terms of intentional and the widespread of arms conflicts in-between political communities; hence its definition is that of political violence.Warfare is also given a definition of a set of tactics learnt by a group to carry out war.This paper will discuss the war in the Middle East and what Obama is doing to scale down the operations in Iraq.The War in Afghanistan began in 2001 as the US armed forces Operation settings were in response to the 911, 2001 bomb attack. The attribute of the war owes to the resistance by the U.S. forces next to the Al-Qaeda and its Taliban followers and adjacent to some Afghans who were against the activities of the armed forces led by the U.S. The war brought about the killing of many inhabitants where the common are mostly the inhabitant.
The war in Afghanistan cannot be won. It is also measured to be morally wrong. Many people that pass away because of the hits are inhabitants living in Afghanistan. Numerous civilians as well as non civilians are killed yearly as well as hundreds of soldiers. The U.S. and its associates were at first victorious in getting rid of the Taliban from the command in Kabul and the other main settlements and town of Afghanistan; nevertheless, many affiliates of the Al Qaeda and Taliban associations safely runaway from the country.
The policies in the United States have been particularly significant in determining the dealings that the nation has had in the international perspective. The policy is designed to optimize the grasp of a more secure, successful and democratic world to benefit America and the international world which are particularly critical. The U.S. still hopes to reinstate the Taliban command with a Western-style democratic system. Corruption seems to run profoundly in the Karzai regime, on the other hand; it hopes to keep the Taliban from getting to power and stop Afghanistan from yet again becoming a refuge for anti-Western activist groups. (Afghanistan Justice Project,2005)
The United States is a genuine capitalistic of the world whose relation with the international setting is designed at optimally realizing its goals at the end. This is clearly establishing the fact that the deterrence theory is best used in defining the American relation with Afghanistan.
In respect to the relation that the USA has with Afghanistan, a variety of factors have put up the nature of the relation. The fact that the US is the main controller of the universe has shaped its relationship with Afghanistan. It is in this perspective that this essay endeavors to show the relation between the two nations by re-examining the main events in Afghanistan opening with the soviet invasion in the country. (Afghanistan Justice Project,2005)
The formation of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was after the revolution of Saur which was on April , 1978. The Government of Afghanistan had close relations with the Soviet Union that was when the Government of Afghanistan decided to sign a friendship treaty with the Soviet Union on December, 1978. Jimmy Carter who was the president of the United States signed a directive for the covert financial aid in Kabul to the opponents of the Soviet regime.
Due to the death of Adolph who was he US Ambassador the relation between Afghanistan and United states degraded. Therefore, United States deployed twenty ships and two aircraft carriers to the Gulf of Persia and Arabian Sea; hence there were constant threats of warfare between USA and Iran (Valetta, 1980).
The signing of the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt on March 1979 was backed by the US. The soviet leadership saw that the agreement was a significant advantage for United States. Not only did the soviets see that the treaty was a sign of the peace agreement between Israel and Egypt but the soviet perceived it as a military pact. The US sold over five thousand missiles to Saudi Arabia and also the Royalists rebels in were supplied against the Nasserist government. That was when the strong relations between Iraq and the Soviet Union ran sour. Iraq began entering into friendlier relations with the western side of the world, and Iraq was buying French, and Italian made weapons, however, the vast majority of the weapons still came from its Warsaw Pact allies, the Soviet Union and China (Valenta, 198).
In December 1978, the Afghan Government secured a treaty that allowed them to sermon the soviet forces. They requested the soviet troops to provide security and to fight the mujahedeen rebels.
The soviet government responded by sending a detachment of tanks and other weaponry to guard the government in Kabul and to guard airfields. After a month of requests made by the afghan government the requests were no longer individual crews or subunits but the requests were for regiments and others larger units. The afghan government requested a motorized rifle division to be sent to Afghanistan in July, the following day an airborne division was requested as additional to the earlier requests (Valenta, 1980).
The government of Afghanistan kept on requesting for more troops up to December 1979, however, the Soviet Union was in no hurry to submit to their requests. The soviet leaders had a feeling that the actions that the prime minister Hafizullah Amin’s had taken destabilized the state in Afghanistan. Armins leadership would lead to harsh repressions following the coup and the killing of president Taraki, and as a result there will be the activation and consolidation of the opposition (walker, 1994)
In 1979, the soviet informants who responded to the Afghan forces were under orders from the advisors of the soviet premier Brezhnev that they have their tanks and other crucial equipments under maintenance. Meanwhile, the telecommunications links outside Kabul were sabotaged leading to the isolation of the capital. With the deterioration of the security situation in the area large number of the soviet airborne joined the stationed troops and started to land on Kabul on December 1979.
The long war that lasted to a decade resulted to millions of Afghan settlers to flee from the warzone area to much safer places in Iran and Pakistan. Thousands of Pakistan civilians were killed due to the cold war. The soviet deployment of the army in Afghanistan was initiated on December1979 which was under the soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. The troop withdrawal was initiated on May 1988, and it finally ended in February 1989 under the soviet leader Mikhali Gorbachev. The conflict in Afghanistan was sometimes referred to as “Soviet Union Vietnam War” or sometimes “the Bear” (Borer, 1999).
American response to provocation
As a comeback to the attack of the Soviet, the U.S administration united its military to join Mujahdeen. It came together with some government groups to present aid inform of of resources and other different ways like giving it the right of entry to surface to air artillery that belonged to the American military as a way of giving assistance to the Afghans against the jaws of the Soviet aggressors. (Marcela,2009).
This posed a very big implication on the counteracting reaction that the Afghanistan forces used in retort to the high tech forces base that had been laid down by the Soviets. The US government helped the afghan because it was the only way through which Afghanistan could successfully take care of its political predicament. The United States also assisted Mujahdeen by reproaching the things the soviets were doing in Afghanistan. Marcela Grad (2009).
On the other hand, the Soviet continued to speak badly of Mujahdeen by referring to him as a terrorist’s criminal. America had been very watchful as to the way by which they got involved in the war that was by now providing evidence of a lost battle for the Soviet who still claims in continuing to cause the loss of lives and financial power of both Afghanistan and the Soviet. It was through Mikhail Gorbachev that the Soviet in conclusion gave in to the battle and in fact saved the Soviet from the shame and the failing economic growth that they had callously gone through.
Other organizations also supported the Mujahdeen while under the umbrella presented by the US. This sort of support to the Mujahdeen was chiefly experienced from the Afghanistan aid group and the commission for a liberated Afghanistan. The Afghanistan Relief board was mainly established with the key function of raising funds used to cater for casualties that had surfaced from the war and stringently being part of the Mujahdeen armed forces group. Even though, it did this not directly by having diverse medical groups getting funds to give the medical services to the Mujahdeen militia, It was an immense source of aid to the Mujahdeen as the fatalities were taken care of and then quickly rejoined their fellow soldiers back to the forests. Marcela Grad (2009).
Mikhali Gorbachev came with a new idea on foreign and domestic idea in 1985, and it was a critical factor for the soviets to leave. Gorbachev was trying to change the years which Brezhnev led without any change and also the reform soviet union’s economy. He tried to ease the tension of the cold war by signing the treaty of the intermediate range nuclear forces, by withdrawing the soviet troops from Afghanistan. Gorbachev observed the quarrel with China, due to that it resulted to military build ups at that border, and it was regarded as one of Brezhnev's mistakes.
Beijing had predetermined that a normalization of relations between the two would have to hold on until Moscow withdrew its troops from Afghanistan. In 1989 was the first among all Sino-Soviet summits in approximately 30 years that took place (Maley,1989). In1987 the Soviets had to pull many of their troops out of Mongolia where they were also having an easier time than in Afghanistan. The soviets restrained the invasion of the Vietnamese in Kampuchea to the point of withdrawal in 1988. The mass withdrawal of the Soviet forces from different areas showed that the government of the Soviet decision to get out of Afghanistan was based upon the general change in Soviet foreign policy.
The Soviet troops prepared for their withdrawal, and they executed their what they were preparing, and they moved away from Afghanistan. The limited offensive operations were content to defend against the raids of mujahadeen. This operation did not have a long time effect, but it allowed the Soviets to symbolically clear their presence with a win. The soviets had negotiated a cease fire in order to negotiate a safe passage with the mujahedeen commanders, due to that the withdrawal was done peaceful except for operation typhoon. (Marcela Grad ,2009).
The defense minister of the soviet union general Yazov ordered his troops to violate an agreement with Ahmed Shah Masood who is a commander of a massive force in the Panjshi valley and surprise attack his opponents. The surprise attack was initiated in the name of protecting Najibullah who feared the offensive of Masood forces after the withdrawal of the Soviet Union. The Soviets abstained from a close-range fight so as to minimize the risk of own loses; instead they were smart, and they used long-range offensive strategy to defeat the enemy, they used artillery and missiles. Civilian casualties were high.
Rise of Taliban
The most broadly dispersed theory is that the control of the Taliban comes out from among the discontented young Afghan immigrants learning in the devout schools. Subsequent to the Soviets sending their army into Afghanistan propping up of the communist rule in Kabul, Ziaul Haq, the subsequent leader of Pakistan, formed a series of ‘Deeni Madaris’ alongside the Afghan-Pakistan boundary. He did so in order to form a restraint of devout-oriented students who would help the mujahideen to throw out the Soviet armed forces from Afghanistan.
The Afghan capital Kabul was taken to hostage by the Taliban menace in 1996. The Taliban banned everything in the capital that opposed them, be it political parties or trade unions. They introduced the brutal sharia law which outlawed almost everything. Homosexual was buried alive, women were virtually under enslavement, and leisure activities were all banned. Osama Bin Laden was the major financiers of the Taliban.The sharia law has nothing to do with the Afghan culture and most Afghan Muslims belong to the Hanafi school of thought which is the most tolerant of the Sunni Islam. Madrisas was where the Taliban fighters were recruited and trained.
The Soviet Union invaded afghanistan to defend the unstable Stalinist client state in 1979. As [art of the cold war against communism, the US did an organized counter revolutionary warfare in Afghanistan as a plan to drive the USSR. The rich Saudi tycoons, drug money and the US had donated billions of dollars which was used to arm and fund the mujahadeen guerillas in Afghanistan. 1.5millionpeople were killed in duration of 21years. (Maley,Saikal,1989).
Osama Bin laden was one of the organizers of the anti USSR crusade. The US government had accused the Taliban of harboring and hiding Osama Bin Laden in which they unveiled that the US armed and financed the troops. In 1989,, the USSR had to withdraw from its current occupation in Afghanistan due to
The growing crisis in the Soviet society and the opposition to a losing war which had caused a stunning 15000 casualties. Hence, most of the mujahedeen veterans returned home to in their respective countries as die hard members of Osama Bin Laden Al Queda terror organization.