Human Evolution

Free Essay Sample «Human Evolution»

All the human beings have a complex brain, a straight posture and an ability to communicate. Humans are the only creatures in the world, who possess such peculiarities. However, scientists proved that people are not the only human beings. In fact, Neanderthals were also considered to be human beings because they had the same characteristics that people have now.

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Another key point is that Neanderthals had their own culture and possessed specific skills. For example, they made different tools from stone and weapons from wood. Moreover, Neanderthals, who lived in covers, developed different types of skills:  they made fire, created and wore clothes, hunted and picked plants for eating. Furthermore, they depicted some patterns and symbols. What is more important, Neanderthals could have practice some religious ceremonies, when their relatives died. Neanderthals buried their bodies and put flowers and other offerings on their graves (“Homo neanderthalensis,” n.d.). In Fact, burial is a conscious process exercised by humans that have close social relations and understand the necessity of this ritual. Scientists found many sites  with graves that contained some tools, flowers, and bones. Another fact of the humanness of Neanderthals was their capability to play musical instruments. In 1996 in Slovenia, a little flute that was made from a bone of bear was found in a cave, (Muller, & Schrenk, 2008, p.27).  In 2010 another piece of information about the life of Neanderthals was detected. Interestingly, scientists discovered some shells that contained various pigments for make-up in Spain. Such a discovery signals Neanderthals created and used cosmetics. Additionally, some symbols and pictures were found in the caves of Neanderthals (“Homo neanderthalensis,” n.d.).  Neanderthals were the first primates that could possess such skills and exercise such behavior. Thus, Neanderthals had their traditions and cultural views as people have now.

Another key point is that the anatomy of Neanderthals is similar to the anatomy of modern people.In 1998, New Scientist told that there was a thorough research of the Neanderthal skull, which discovered that its hypoglossal nerve canals were like human ones. Thus, they were able to talk. They could even use a complex syntax during their speaking. The analysis of DNA showed that Neanderthals, like humans, had the gene that was responsible for tasting bitter flavor (Wong, 2015, p.38). The anatomists Cave and Straus reported that Neanderthals suffered from arthritis. Such a fact means that they could walk uprightly as modern people do. In 1998, a thorough research of the Neanderthal skull discovered that the hypoglossal nerve canals of the Neanderthals was similar to human ones. Thus, the scientific research of 1998 proves that Neanderthals were able to talk. Moreover, they could even use a complex syntax in their speaking. The brain of Neanderthal was almost the same size as modern humans have. Surprisingly, the brain of Neanderthal was even approximately 100 ml larger than people's brain. This fact affirmed that Netherlands were human beings. Another important fact is that Neanderthals had the same totality of bones and could perform the same functions as people do. The only difference in the anatomy is the fact that Neanderthals had thicker and stronger bones; scientists prove that such a characteristic relates to  a different environment and living conditions. Moreover, Neanderthals were able to adapt to winters. They had a compact massive body that allowed them to survive in the cold climate during ice ages.

Every human being has specific peculiarities of the body. Neanderthal males and Neanderthal females had some distinctions like men and women in the modern world do. Neanderthal females were shorter and weaker than Neanderthal males. Scientists conducted a research where they compared the bodies of Neanderthals and humans at the table; special attention was paid to specific traits. The first feature that was analyzed is cranial capacity. The skull of Neanderthals is larger (about 1490 cc) than the skull of Homo Sapiens (1300-1500 cc). The next trait that was considered is an occipital bone. The occiput of Homo Sapiens is mmore arced and rounded than the Neanderthal one. In addition, Neanderthals have an occipital torus, which is not present in the body structure of Homo Sapiens. Furthermore, the contour of cranial vault of Neanderthals is flat and their skull is lower and broader. In contrast, Homo Sapiens have a convex contour of the cranial vault (Phillips, 2000). The naturalists also contrasted the frontal bone and the orbits. While Neanderthals have a sloping forehead and double-arched brow ridge, Homo Sapiens have vertical frontal brow ridge that is small or absent. One more distinctive feature is that Neanderthals have large teeth and a retro molar hole behind the third molar. However, Homo Sapiens have teeth that are not that that big and they do not have a retro molar hole behind the third molar (Phillips, 2000). This difference is stipulated by the fact that Neanderthals lived in severe cold climate and their body adapted accordingly in order to survive. Thus, they tended to be larger and heavier than modern humans are. All the living conditions influenced Neanderthal's physiology and anatomy.  Despite all the differences,  Neanderthals had the anatomy that is very similar to human's one.

In Neanderthal's caves scientists found tools made from wood and stone that Neanderthals used for hunting, making a fire, and cooking. . Scientists discovered that Neanderthals hunted using sharp wooden spears. Usually after hunting Neanderthals butchered different animals. Moreover, they consumed resources from the seas and rivers such as seals, fish, and dolphins. The chemical analysis of Neanderthal bones and teeth showed that they consumed not only a lot of meat, but starch grains were also present in their food. In fact, Neanderthals used their tools for sewing. This fact is supported with the scientific discovery of awls and scrapers that were similar to contemporary needles (“Homo neanderthalensis,” n.d.). Surprisingly, the researchers claim that Neanderthals could even perform some operations using their tools. For example, they could amputate the arm or leg and save the life. However, none of apes can perform surgery.  

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