Table of Contents
President Barack Obama
President Barack Obama stipulated the following believes during his remarks on new beginning at Cairo University in Egypt. He was giving a speech on the relationship between America and the Islamic community as well as to other parts of the world. His speech demonstrated the voice of reasoning and democratic relations between various countries.
Obama believes that change does not occur in a night. He maintains that in order to move forward, we must be open to each other and share what we harbor in our hearts. We must be willing to listen to each other through a democratic process. This will enable us to seek a common ground where all our needs and grievances are equally represented. Moreover, respect is the most important thing for harmonious living between nations. We must hold on to our interests and avoid forces that separate us. He believes that we should keep focused to the task ahead of us. Obama also believes that the beginning of our task is initiated by our recognition of our common humanity. Indeed, the use of mere words cannot meet the needs of our people. Our needs are met by our bold actions, sharing challenges and failures, as well as working together.
Obama believes that we must deal with the issue of violent extremist together. Historically, various forms of extremists’ actions have affected people from all corners of the world. Thus, Obama believes that military power cannot solve the local problems; people must unite to initiate developments. People should avoid pointing fingers. We should not only see conflict from one side, but we should seek to find the truth. Obama believes that it is hard to overcome decades of mistrust among various nations. However, he asserts that different countries should proceed with courage, rectitude and seek solutions to the prevailing forms of mistrust. On the issue of nuclear weapons, he believes that it is our shared interest in taking responsibilities and actions against nuclear weapons. On the other hand, we should not remain trapped in the past. Leaders around the world should be prepared to move forward. Eventually we will be living in a democratic world.
On enlightenment Kant believes in the following: the public should gain attainment slowly to facilitate their independent thinking. This enables them to avoid being subjected to the yoke by their guardians. Although restriction is the main obstacle to enlightenment, Kant believes that the use of reason facilitates the progress of enlightenment. There should be mechanisms to direct public needs. Kant also believes that clergymn or church conference should never be allowed to further the course of human race enlightenment. He argues that enlightenment should not be performed by a superior power. This is because the public will not be able to purify itself from errors, hence, unable to progress in the general enlightenment. He believes that spirit of freedom spreads beyond the reach of man. Thus, people must struggle with external forces put in place by the government in order to meet their interests. There should be no infringements of the spirit of enlightenment. Free thinking, which works to the character of people, should be facilitated by the government which culminates in the management of public freedoms.
On the state of nature, Locke believes in the following: firstly, power and jurisdiction should be equal. No one should have more than the other. There should be equity among the same faculties. However, Locke believes that in case one faculty is set above the other, it should be through evident and clear appointment. These appointments should adhere to the right dominion and sovereignty. He also believes that no one has the right to harm another’s life, health, possessions, as well as liberty. No one has the right to authorize destroying one another. Human kind should hold on to preservation of life and liberty of individuals. Locke argues that law of nature should be put into everyman’s hands. This will enable one to punish transgressors to an extent that violation will cease. Thus, people should have the power to execute the law offenders, hence, avoid evil among mankind. He maintains God has given every man capacity to act by the rule of reason and common equity. However, in case a man becomes dangerous to other mankind, he is trespassing against the entire species’ peace and safety. Thus, such an individual should be made to repent to deter him from doing more harm, or else punish him.
On the issue of property, Locke believes that since God has given the world to men to make the best out of it, there should be means of appropriating to magnify its use. This will ensure that every man benefits from it. Nevertheless, labor is a commodity of an individual. This has reduced commonality among men. He believes that introduction of labor added something in nature. As a private right, labor brings about distinction between men.
Milton believes that inventions are developed to benefit of the commonwealths who have the forborne in the use of the inventions. They use these inventions to oppress and seduce men. Thus, Milton believes that it may be very hard for such inventions to benefit all mankind. He also believes that good and evil exist in the same field inseparably in this world. Therefore, he believes that it is hard for a man to distinguish between evil and good. He argues that although wisdom is there, it can only be used in the continence of the knowledge of evil. Thus, man must consider all vices before choosing the best way to follow. Moreover, Milton believes that books have the likeliest capacity to taint life and doctrines. Thus, in his understanding, books are likely to propagate evils. He states that a fool will definitely be a fool with the best book ever. In this case, Milton believes that when a man writes to the world, he uses a lot of energy and resources. Thus, such an author ought to receive recognition and appreciation. If this does not happen, he suffers dishonor and derogation instead of dignity and privilege. He also believes that authorization and licensing of books should be done judiciously to avoid jeopardizing the next succession and avoid vulgarly.
Marcus Tullius Cicero
Concerning the law, Cicero believes in the following: he believes in the existence of God, whose superiority is the drive to our providence. He is above all other creatures, the only divine one in heaven and earth. He maintains that the right to reason is what composes the laws that are democratically put in place. He believes that men and God are consociated by law. Therefore, there must be communication of justice between the two parties. As a result, law and justice are the common rules of both mortals and immortals. He also believes that the universe makes a commonwealth and a city as certain particular laws are in force. He also holds a belief that men retained their terrestrial origin, perishable and mortal bodies. On the same, the immortal bodies were ingenerated by the Deity. Therefore, the law of virtue is common to man and God and this should be the same case when the virtue of reasoning is enacted to develop democratic processes. This involves perfection of nature and its excellence, as well as the liberty of men. He strongly believes that law and equity are not established on opinions but they are institutions of nature through human association. Cicero also argues that nature made us for various reasons; to participate in our goods with fellow men as well as meet each other’s needs. He maintains that nature is indeed pure and not in corrupt state as it is the case with men. Thus, the divine mind and reasoning forms the supremacy of law resulting into democracy. He believes that although civil laws differ, every law should be morally good and laudable in order to justify the course of justice and equity. Thus, equity and justice result into democracy.