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Number One

Salt marsh refers to a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between open salt water and land whose tides experience floods on a regular basis. The mean elevation of the salt surfaces has to build up to keep in pace with the continuous increase in sea level and developments of salt marsh organic composition. If the rates of sedimentation in salt marsh do not surpass the actual loss in elevation due to the steady increase in the sea level and salt marsh substance, it will drown. When drowning occurs, the surface of the marsh area becomes slightly tidal which can cause numerous changes on the habitat. Such changes include conversion of vegetated salt marsh which tends to increase the flat mud.

Salt marshes, particularly in Northeast parts of the United States, serve as a critical habitat for many species of both plants and animals. The marshes perform a variety of ecologically vital chemical functions including inorganic and organic waste retention. They also, lead to removal and transformation of global carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling. They cause sediment entrapment along with buffering of upland surface from wave  and storm impacts, erosion, and coastal flooding.

South Carolina features more salt marsh acreage as compared to any other coastline state in the United States of America. These salt marshes are due to a high rate of the fall and rise of tides which, cause bold changes in levels of salinity, water depth, and temperature. Frequency, salinity and extent of flooding influence the types of animals and plants found there.

Salt marshes form an integral part of coastal estuaries along the Maine state. The marshes are lying low and are open plains with abundant grasses. They are colorful bands, which have a relationship with tidal pools and creeks. They result from the relationship among different varieties of salt marsh plants, which proliferate in response to a certain mode of tidal ups and downs. The salt marshes flourish depending on its ability to link to the sea. Various plants form the basis of the exceptionally productive salt marsh ecosystem. The marshes are always in small and large patches along the Maine’s tidal coastlines.

Salt marshes of Maine have regional character. Along the southwest coastline, large marshes form meadows protected by barrier beaches, which are similar to salt marshes in Connecticut and Massachusetts. They can be found along the landward openings of protected coves in the further east especially along the upper vicinity of tidal rivers.

Physical Soil

A salt marsh refers to muddy seashores with rich vegetation that they feature. It is an area that presents in itself a transitional layer between salty water and land. The salt marshes develop on coasts, estuaries, and bays, where tidal rises and falls lead to gentle and light erosion. Such sheltered conditions lead to the formation of fine particles materials like clays, silts, and mud which begin binding together. Particles eventually transform from suspended state and start to deposit. These processes occur continuously, implying that the length of the mud enlarges with time and, therefore, the surface is exposed to out of the water condition over longer periods.

The above process necessitates the seeds of plants, which are carried out by water or wind, to germinate while attaching their roots solid into the ground. The impact of these first plants in terms of the developing salt marsh affects its physical condition. Plants help in binding together mud and oxygen transmission. They also trap more sediment; their decomposition over winter supplements nutrients, organic matter, and minerals to the composition of muddy soil.

Biological Factors

Salt marshes of the northeast of the United States of America are home to extremely many plants and animals. Birds like Clapper Rail are present in such areas. Invertebrates like Grass Shrimp, Mammals like Marsh Rabbits, and Reptiles like Diamondback Terrapin inhabit the salt marshes. The marshes are extremely productive environments. There is abundant grass, herbs, and low shrubs which dominate the view. The importance of shat marsh to the animals, which inhabit the area, is that some animals like birds, crabs, snails, and fish can take shelter among the plants and in shallow water. Most of the species have evolved traits that enable them to tolerate salt water. Most marshes have sedge that provides food for animals.

Salt waters are necessary because they provide significant breeding and feeding grounds for many animals and act as nurseries for fish such as Pacific Salmon. Microorganisms break down marshes from plants; tidal currents take them offshore. These materials are helpful to the floating plankton that provides food for fish and marine mammals. The wildlife found in the salt marine provides valuable tourism, education, recreation, and research opportunities for scholars.

Animals like rodents, birds, and fish live in the salt marshes. Mammals and other categories of animals inhabit the marshes. These animals have developed special features that help them live in a salty environment.

The importance of salt marshes from Carolina up to Maine is identical in many forms. Salt marshes protect against waves and sea level rise. This is because salt marshes are able to expand and keep pace with the increasing ocean level since they trap nutrients and sediment, which enable them to form peat.

Salt marshes provide a nursery area for fish, crustaceans, and insects. There is a lot of food of which fish and insects feed, and the area protects them from predators, thus enabling them to proliferate. The salt marshes have vegetation that bacteria consume. The decaying plants and microbes provide food for insects, fish and mussels. The other importance is that salt marshes lead to spatial migration of plant community zones; this depends on the relative sea level rise rate, the acceleration rate as specific to zone and location, and the availability of land at a suitable base elevation. Migration of animals like birds is highly common in salt marshes; they migrate to such places every autumn and spring.

Number Two


The observations from the experiments establish that the level of carbon monoxide produced by Toyota which has 6 cylinders is the highest. This is as a result of the many numbers of cylinders and the age of the vehicle. Presence of carbon monoxide in larger quantity implies a low rate of internal combustion. Volkswagen produced in 2013 produce the highest amount of carbon dioxide; this is because its engine allows complete combustion since the car is still new and powerful. Nissan Quest of 2000 produces the largest amount of Nitrogen. This is a result of incomplete combustion of gasoline. The age of the car has a relationship to the amount of carbon dioxide produced. Cars made between 2000 and 2008 record 0.7% level of emission. Vehicles made in 2000 have the same level of carbon monoxide emission. Number of cylinders and fuel do not a play part in determining the amount of emissions.

Question 1

  1. Source of carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide results from incomplete combustion, which takes place; this is due to partial oxidization of fuel to carbon dioxide.

  1. Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide is a product of perfect combustion in the internal engine of a car. Fuel burns to result into the water and carbon dioxide.

  1. Nitrogen dioxide

It results from the reaction between nitrogen and oxygen atoms in the air due to increase in pressure and temperature in an engine of a car.

  1. Gasoline

Gasoline is the fuel that burns in the internal engine of a car. It gets into the tailpipe through fuel evaporation thus sneaking into the environment. Evaporative emission can occur due to diurnal where, gasoline evaporation intensifies as the temperature increases during the day, heating the fuel tank which emits gasoline vapors.

  1. Sulfur Dioxide

It results from incomplete combustion in the internal engine of a car. It has an adverse effect on the environment.

Question 2

Carbon monoxide inhibits the blood’s ability to carry oxygen to the brain and heart. When somebody inhales carbon monoxide, it reacts with oxygen carrying hemoglobin of the blood. This reaction is unsuitable in human bodies.

Early symptoms of carbon monoxide include fatigue, headaches, and nausea. Symptoms like physical weakness and flu are a result of exposure to carbon monoxide.

Question 3

Health dangers of nitrogen dioxide gas include throat, eye, and nose irritation. Gas may cause respiratory and lung infections in children. It may lead to increase in bronchial reactivity in asthmatic individuals. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may experience decrease in lung function.

Question 4

This is because automobile exhaust emissions lead to emission of harmful gases in the environment. Automobiles emit gases like carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, gasoline, and carbon dioxide among other gases that are harmful to the environment. Another reason why it must take place especially in the urban areas is because such areas have the largest number of automobiles compared to rural areas; thus why, the air quality control authorities must concentrate on automobiles.

Question five

The converter is a device that uses the basic reduction processes to help reduce the pollutants of a car. The catalytic converter achieves this by converting carbon monoxide fumes into non-harmful gases. It contains a metal housing that has a ceramic honeycomb-type interior. This interior has a thin wall channels that have a wash coat of aluminum oxide. The catalytic converter relies on simple reduction and oxidation reactions to convert carbon monoxide into less harmful gases, which are environment friendly.

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