The rise of self-esteem of a student positively affects his or her life, successfulness in all spheres of activities as well as in social and psychological adaptation in the society and students’ community. The development of positive self-esteem, self-regulation and self-control can be an important factors in the individual’s life that leads to the personal goals achievement.
When the number of students increases, phenomena associated with self-esteem, society and community life adaptation, and self-concept of an individual become important to be discovered and comprehended. Nowadays, the society requires from people plasticity, the ability to change and cope with various situations successfully (Singh, 1996). Adequate self-esteem greatly helps in life. However, it is not always easy for a person to follow these issues; thus, a lot of various problems such as social, psychological, and physiological can arise. Analysis of modern psychology literature shows that many of research works pay serious attention to the peculiarities of such an essential component of students’ personalities as relation to themselves (Baumeister & Vohs, 2007).
Self-esteem, being a personal formation, plays an important role in activities. First, the self-esteem of student includes the knowledge how to assess themselves, their abilities, integrity, and actions. It is also a human judgment about the extent of presence of various qualities, properties of character and behavior in relation to certain standards of the society the person lives in. Generally, self-esteem represents evaluative relation of a person to himself/herself. Moreover, it is also the result of mental operations such as analysis, comparison and synthesis. Thus, self-esteem is considered in situations when people, students in particular, can evaluate themselves, their abilities and personal qualities and the place among others (Lawrence, 2006).
Self-esteem influences the socio-psychological adaptation (a process of interaction between the individual and the social environment). The last is aimed at the achievement of a certain degree of compliance with performance requirements of the society. It is a system where the main elements are structural components of the individual, on the one hand, and the features of the social environment, on the other hand (Clinciu, 2013).
The relationship of self-esteem and anxiety is often approved by scientists in the study of students; when high general self-esteem and self-respect are compared with the low anxiety, low self-esteem, on the contrary, is associated with the increased anxiety. Nevertheless, positive self-esteem brings nourishing emotional wellness (Reilly, 2015).
The features such as anxiety, frustration and guilt are not characteristic for self-concept of successful students because they appreciate and value themselves; moreover, these learners perceive themselves as nonconformist. Students also tend to determine authorities among a group. They consider abovementioned negative features to be connected with poor performance and absenteeism. Therefore, the exams are perceived by these students in the context of competition and ambitions. They study by their own, considering it as a means to the successful career and marriage. In their submissions they are not too far from the image of the ideal student. Thus, the high level of self-esteem helps a person to consider that despite hard work and obstacles in life, the competition is won.
For the students with average success, positive self-esteem and self-concept includes their involvement in independent study and activity which is not related to achievements. They also, as advanced students, consider themselves nonconformist. However, there is a connection for them between exams and feelings of anxiety, frustration, and guilt, perceptions of authority, and reaction to absence at lectures. Unlike the first group of the students, they regard house, love, sex and marriage to be not inherent in their self. However, the consequences of the raise of self-esteem for these individuals can be the reduction of negative feelings and higher achievements in education (Mruk, 2006).
Self-concept of students with poor performance is similar to the concept of the previous group, but they do not perceive themselves as nonconformist. Attending parties is not connected with their self-awareness or self-esteem. They associate exams and authorities with anxiety, frustration and guilt, the elements which form an essential part of their self-concept. It is necessary to emphasize that self-concept of low-performing students, in comparison with the successful ones, is very one-sided. Educational activities and training procedures of this group of students are associated with negative emotions (Clinciu, 2013). Thus, enhancement of self-esteem is highly recommended for the students with the low task completion. Teachers and parents assist these students by diminishing environmental pressures and negative influences on susceptible students. On the other hand, counseling, psychological help and individually aimed support are good policies to solve the problem of low self-esteem.
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The essential fact for consideration is that high, sometimes exaggerated, self-esteem of personal qualities and effects of positive activities are connected with persistent high status of a particular student in the group. It becomes obvious when this person is actively engaged in social work (Brisset, Safdar, Lewis & Sabatier, 2010). Besides, when students are engaged in healthy actions and try to avoid destructive issues, the feelings of their personal estimation rise, and they get the conviction that they are self-sufficient and able to live the worthy life (Mruk, 2006).
Moreover, any engagement into productive team work improves the self-esteem. It is necessary to stress that early forms of high self-esteem are developed in most children. Later, cognition and development of self-concept bring the ability to see beyond primary point of view. In the middle childhood, comparisons begin to level the person’s self-esteem, while a lot of people feel the decline of confidence in their own worth or abilities in early adolescence; however, it begins to rise again throughout the twenties. Therefore, the students’ age is very favorable for the self-esteem raise. Besides, respect to a person in his/her childhood brings confidence and is of vital importance. Thus, self-esteem is regarded as the combination of self-confidence and self-respect. High level of it gives the possibility to cope with various issues effectively (Mruk, 2006).