Plans for process improvement define the procedure that requires improvement with the aim of improving the process. The current process need to be defined and then before another plan to establish a better one with the target of reducing time and hence cut on the overall cost of undertaking the exercise. The most important issue is proper communication that will ensure that sound implementation is done to see if the process is feasible (Mesbah, at al. 2002). During week one and week three I created a table to show the amount of time taken for preparation to go to the field and collect data. The main purpose of the tabulated data was to establish a more efficient way to get prepared for fieldwork, to find out any potential bottleneck and to eliminate the wasted time. This work seeks to discuss the control limits and this will constitute the calculation of the data that will be used to estimate them, explore the effects of any other extraneous factors using each of the process performance data and introduce the role of statistical tests of significance like the concept of confidence interval (Brown, 2009). The usefulness of such statistical techniques will also be applied based on the amount of data points.

Statistical scholars and researchers have established that statistical process control constitutes the testing of a random sample of any output from a procedure to establish whether the exercise produces variables within a range that is preselected. In week two, obstacles were identified during the morning preparation routine. This daily bottleneck was found out to be the time of waking up and undertaking simple household chores before embarking on the journey to the field (Persse, 2008). This is to say that the longer the amount of time spent in such duties, the shorter is the time allocated for the actual fieldwork. One of the open options to overcome this challenge is to wake up early so that the household tasks can be undertaken with some time allowance to absorb the expected lateness time. Some constraints’ theorists like Goldratt, argues that the best remedial measure against a problem is dependenton problem solving skills. The techniques provide a layout of procedure that helps in identification of the constraints, eliminating them and seeking out others. In other words, once the time taken to wake up is shortened, and then the next target is also to reduce the time of carrying out the morning routine duties. It is imperative that the significance of statistical tools in solving real life challenges like the one in question are taken into consideration (Brown, 2009). Some of the measures of central tendency and dispersion that are vital in computing the tabulated data to establish a solution include mean and standard deviation.

During the first week, the data was collected for five days covering from Monday to Friday. During the week, the data collected was based on the duration of time required to prepare for the field work. The minimum preparation duration for week one is 45 minutes that was on Monday while the maximum time spend while preparing for the fields trip was 63 minutes on Friday. This gives us a range of 18 minutes [63 - 48 = 18]. Range is a measure of dispersion that accounts for the spread between the maximum and the minimum values. During the same week, the median score was 51 minutes that happened to be on Thursday. Median is a measure of central tendency that measures the central value in either ascending or descending order of ranks. In during week one, the average value is 51.8 minutes. The average value measures the mean of the time taken to prepare for the field work. The preparation time for week one had a standard deviation of 6.83374 with a variance of 46.70. This shows that the preparation time varies above or below the mean value of 51.8 by 6.83374. It is important to set out control standards in the processing of conducting research. For instance, in week one, the control standard would set at 2 units above or below the standard value. This implies that nearly 67.67% of the values fall within this range. However, the smaller the variation the more accurate and reliable the outcome is, hence, the variation should be made as minimal as possible (National Research Council, 2012).

In the second week, the maximum preparation time was 55 minutes while the minimum was 41 minutes, hence a range of 14 minutes, with a weekly average of 47.2 and a standard deviation of 5.50. During the third week of preparation, a five day preparation was important. Similar to the first week, the exercise took five days covering from Monday to Friday. The maximum preparation time was 36 minutes (on Tuesday) while the minimum was 30 posted on Thursday. This gives us a range of 10 (given by Max – Min; 36 -30 = 6). This implies that all the values lie within a range of 10. The medium preparation time is 33 minutes. The mean for the third week is 32.8 minutes. The standard deviation (which is a measure of dispersion given by the sum of the mean deviation) for the third week is 2.5 with a variance of 6.25, an indication that all the values deviate below or above the mean by 2.5 minutes. At 97.6 % confidence level, all the values of the mean falling out side this range are considered to be outside the control limit of the research (Davis, 2003).

In the fourth week, the minimum preparation time was 32 minutes while the maximum was 38 minutes, hence a range of 6 minutes. The weekly average was 35.6 and the standard deviation was 2.30. Similarly, during the fifth week, the maximum preparation time was 39 minutes and minimum preparation time of 33 minutes, resulting into a 6 minute range. The weekly average was 36 minutes which deviates below or above the mean by 2.55 minutes. From a five-week preparation data provided, it is evidenced that the first week posted the longest preparation time with a mean of 51.8 minutes.

Seasonal factors have an effect on the preparation time of the student. For instance, some activities that students engage in during the day will adversely affect the students preparation time. During athletics and soccer competition makes the students weary and hence getting out of bed relatively late as compared to other days. In order to reduce their preparation time, students must strategize by waking up earlier and minimize on the time taken while taking breakfast. In addition, the student must arrange all the items prior to bed.