«Pfeiffer» - Great Essay Sample


Pfeiffer treats the readers with a short introduction before the main body of the article. He emphasizes the high speed of transcendence from the nomadic lifestyle to the city one, where the personal space and freedom of the person are limited, with high concentration of other people living around. Gatherers and hunters were forced to find other ways of survival rather than their traditional activities, and they gradually started doing agriculture. The rise of the world ocean is another factor that could be crucial for people to gather in closer groups on less areas. Scientists also noticed the direct dependence on the increase of birth rate as the tribes commenced leading settled way of life instead of being constantly on the move. The rise of population required developing agriculture to provide food for the growing number of people and to get them work to do. As small settlements were transforming to villages, villages were gradually replaced with first cities that were populated with former hunters who were now involved in agriculture.

Settled way of life required non-stop water supply for the villagers and for agriculture, so first irrigation channels were built, taking water from the major water arteries to the fields of crops. Settlements were influenced by a number of factors, one of them being the attractiveness of the cities, their services and opportunities. Cities were also offering protection, as they had strong city walls built around them. Settlements in Asia and America happen to be the first ones to reach historically new levels of society organization. Hierarchy changed traditionally equal hunter-gatherers into different social layers of city habitants based on the hierarchy of the settlements. This basically allowed the first division of the society in classes. New level of life demanded effective management – somebody had to tell the others what to do in order to keep the order, and first documents in the form of seals appeared. Another development of that age was trade, as global urbanization of the cities of that time turned them into the trade centers of their time. Religion developed along with the first cities, with priests being the motivators for the regular workers to keep on working.



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