Without any doubt, throughout the centuries, human societies have established advanced collaboration and closer relationships. Nowadays the pace of global amalgamation has considerably increased. Unprecedented changes in mass communication, transportation, and development in computer technologies have influenced the establishment of a new era of multinational teamwork. This new era was defined as the period of globalization. According to the definition, globalization is the expansion of international linkages, organization of human life on a global scale, and an increase of global understanding leading to unification of the global society. Indisputably, the term globalization is complicated to define. Historically, the first reminiscence of globalization can be dated back to 320 B.C. when the Maurya Empire developed international trade with Asia and Europe. Moreover, successful business relationships could be found in ancient Egypt, the Roman Empire, the Parthian Empire, and the Han Dynasty. Development of world trade was also greatly impacted by the establishment of the Silk Road that represented the multipartite plan that helped to protect trade routes around the world. Moreover, some scholars pointed out that the rise of globalization is dated from the 1970s until the end of the Cold War. According to this time domain, globalization can be characterized by two phenomena. First, it is the time of peace between the United States and the Soviet Union. Secondly, it is the destruction of the “Social Contract”, primarily in Great Britain and around the world. Significance of this period is evident due to an increase in the level of employment and greater opportunities in various types of work such as ‘flextime’ and ‘telecommuting’.
In contrast, adherents of another time span date globalization from the end of the 1970s to the next decade. During this period, various global changes were seen. For instance, the second oil crisis, growing inflation rates, decline in the level of GNP in 1980, the dramatic incident with American hostages in Iran, and advents of power of two radical political leaders – Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan.
Within a framework of defining globalization as a big transformation of transcontinental flows on a global level, it is highly recommended to notice two major theorists of globalization – a Jan Nederveen Pieterse and David Held. According to Pieterse (2003), globalization can be seen as a process of hybridization that determines the rise of a global mix. Hybridization is closely connected with culture that defines it as a course in which modes are separated from a core existing convention and unite with new modes into a new convention. Thus, it is evident that the modern level of globalization includes a relative collapse of the nation and states. It is manifested through such changes as decline of patriotism and global migration. Moreover, Pieterse (2003) explained the hybridization process of society through the process of ‘creolization’. According to Hannerz (1987), the term creolization meant a Caribbean window on international collaboration. Furthermore, Pieterse (2003) examined the work of Torres and Whitten in which globalization was defined as mestizaje, the term referring to multicultural mélange. For instance, this process can be seen in Europeanization of Latin American countries. However, the drawback of creolization and mestizaje is that they are limited by experience of post-sixteenth-century Americans. Speaking about the process of hybridization, it is necessary to mention its main functions. It is generally true that hybridization correlates with a cross-category process. In this case, hybridization connects with different sites such as foreign and domestic, performers and observers (Bakhtin 1968). Another function of hybridization is syncretism, mixing of various religions and beliefs. It can be explained by the fact that there is a fusion of two religious forms, such as Islam and a native one, which had mixed and developed a new ‘third religion’. Furthermore, hybridization has the function of a migration mélange. This feature can be clearly seen in combination of a culture of origin with a culture of residence. For instance, a man can be a Muslim during the day and West European at a disco party in the evening (Feathersone 1990). Owing to advanced technological development, hybridization is the matrix of transition of one culture into another in which cyborgs and virtual reality can considerably influence genetic and cultural composition (Goonatilake 1994).
To the contrary, Held et al. (1999) pointed out that globalization means a considerable increase of available organizational modes of transition from transnational to local. Internationalization and multilateral modes of international administrations’ organization play a significant role in the process of globalization. According to Held et al. (1999), globalization includes four kinds of change. First, social, economic, and political fields are stretched worldwide. Secondly, it suggests strengthening of international collaboration and flows of market, migration, culture, and investment. Thirdly, it includes fast development of global interactions and processes. Moreover, this change has significantly influenced the speed of diffusion of information, ideas, capital, advanced technologies, news, investments, and people. Finally, global teamwork has made the frontiers between domestic matters and international businesses illegible. According to these four changes, David Held and his colleagues (1999) determined four shapes of globalization (thick, diffused, expansive, and thin) and four modes of its impact (decisional, institutional, distributive, and structural).
All in all, the significance of giving a right definition of globalization has become an urgent issue of modern scientific world since it is vital to acknowledge what spheres of life humans associate globalization with. Undoubtedly, everybody should choose the most suitable theory of globalization personally; either it is hybridization or fast development of international collaboration. This choice will mark an individual direction and role in the development of successful worldwide cooperation.
Related Sociology essays
- Reflections on the Contemporary Society and the Death Penalty
- Key Issues of International Relations
- Marriage vs. Career
- The Motivation of Juvenile Delinquency
- The Interconnectedness of Social Problems
- Motivation for Criminal Justice Professionals
- Protecting the Hypothesis Fallacy
- Evidence-Based Practice
- Health Care Provider and Faith Diversity
- Birth Control