With the advent of the era of modernism, the art has faced plenty of changes and innovations. New techniques, means, tools and methods of creating have appeared in order to satisfy the aesthetic demands of a new society. In fact, the modernism and postmodernism have brought many innovative and experimental trends in different kinds of art. Moreover, artists are no more afraid of experimenting and playing with various forms, shapes and techniques. In addition, the modernism has eliminated the borders between art and natural sciences. As a result, we can observe a great majority of artistic streams, encouraged and inspired by physics, chemistry, astrology and other scientific disciplines.
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One of such artistic movements is the spatialism, which combines colors, movements, sounds and energy in one space (Chilvers, 2003). Lucio Fontana introduced it in the middle of the 20th century, in Italy. L. Fontana was an Italian artist, sculptor, theorist and innovator in the sphere of abstract art (Whitfield, 2000). In his opinion, the main task of art is to meet the requirements and needs of the post-war period. Since it was impossible to satisfy these demands with the classical methods, the artist inaugurated a new type of art responsible of combining physical theory with aesthetical views.
One of his works, which fully reveals the peculiarities of spatialism is the series of artistic pieces, called “Spatial Environment.” The eponymous picture was created in 1949 and reconstructed in 1976. Nowadays, it is kept in the Lucio Fontana Foundation, in Milan. In fact, this picture has significantly changed the traditional view on art and its classical appearance. Lucio Fontana was the very first to represent the fusion of cutting-edge technologies and futuristic ideas about the spatial travels.
When speaking about the “Spatial Environment”, it is possible to notice many physical mplementations. Firstly, it is significant to pay attention to the position of the object on the picture. Since Lucio Fontana started his career as a sculptor, he tried to transmit the three-dimensional format of objects into the two-dimensional one. Moreover, according to his words, the traditional placement of objects on the plane is doomed to disappear because of the advent of the new era of space travels. The artist asks the public “Will we use the same technologies of art, being on the surface of other planets or the moon?” The answer is obviously negative, which means that there is a need to look for new techniques and tools of placing the objects in the space in the appropriate way.
Lucio Fontana solves this question with the help of the installation. This is the other allusion to physical study, which explains the relations between the objects and space. According to L. Fontana, the spatial art should include the integration of objects and the surrounding space. In other words, any architectural element of complicated object should be in accord with the space, it exists in. This principle could be trace on the picture “Spatial Environment.”
The position of objects is quite uncertain and unclear. Probably, we see only its lighting part while the rest is fully integrated into the space. Additionally, we can see that the form of objects is unfamiliar and strange, as well. In such a way, the artist tries to transmit the idea of new era and possibilities of science.
Special attention should be paid to the colors on the picture. In fact, the picture was created of papier-mâché and covered with the fluorescent paint. After that, L. Fontana kept it in the dark room and bombarded with the ultraviolet light in order to achieve the effect of glowing. Besides, such a technique witnesses about the utilizing of the principle of diffusion. L. Fontana utilized fluids of different degree of density, since they contain various pigments and other components. Moreover, he left the denser fluid on the top of the less dense one, making it move downward and mix with each other.
As a result, the picture possesses plenty of colors, shades and shadows. All of them are integrated, combined, mixed and joined with each other. Additionally, it is important to look at the background. It is fulfilled in black. Actually, black color possesses the greatest level of density and is good in creating various shades in combination with other colors.
Lucio Fontana successfully implemented the principle of fluids density and the possibilities of different colors in his art. With their help, he managed to create the innovative pictures, witnessing about the achievement of psychic and its further opportunities and heights. In addition, the artist wanted his works to transmit energy and movements. Looking at the picture “Spatial Environment”, we can notice the relative movements of objects or at least their ability to move leftward. At the same time, no boundaries or borders limit their shifting. This principle witnesses the other L. Fontana’s idea about the global character of art (White, 2009).
The artist supposed that art should be accessible for everyone throughout the glove, at the same moment. Currently, it is possible due to the mass media and televisions. In the future, Lucio Fontana believes the transmitting technologies become more accomplished and complicated so that they could fulfill the global nature of art on practice.
To sum up, art does not remain the same and tends to develop together with scientific and technological progress. The innovative artists successfully combine the achievements of art and scientific discipline in order to reach one integrated system. Lucio Fontana is one of such artists, whose works represent a deep insight on the psychical laws and predictions.
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