1. First of all, it is important to emphasize that the process of managing the healthcare organizations depends on the decisions made by top managers. The key functions of management include planning, organizing, motivating, and controlling. The success of a manager may be evaluated by the quality of his/her decisions (Kahneman & Tversk, 2000).
While considering the rational approach towards the decision making process, it is important to mention Laura C. Dunham’s theory. The author has supported it with the evidence of the rational decision making and has pointed out that a rational actor is the manager who is: responsible for the decision making process; goal oriented; self-interested and utilitarian; guided by stable, well-ordered preferences; utility maximizing; procedurally rational (Dunham, 2009). The key function of managers is to make decision aimed at solving problems. It implies evaluating of the problems and situations, developing the alternatives, making choices, and following the developed strategy and its managing.
Nils Brunsson considers the decision making process in the following way. First of all, a problem should be defined and limiting factors should be evaluated. The next step is developing potential alternatives and carrying out their analysis. After that, the best alternative should be selected and the decision should be implemented into practice; the last step implies establishing control over the evaluation system (Brunsson, 1982).
It is obvious that the ideal sources are needed for the decision making process. These sources include: information, time, personnel, budget suppliers, etc. Only having access to such information, it is possible to make a proper decision based on facts, numbers, and available sources. That is why it is possible to make a conclusion that the following statements are true: managers spend a lot of time listening (for obtaining the needed information concerning a particular issue and for its further analysis); the governing board’s calendar ultimately forces a decision; imagination is an important managerial skill. At the same time, the statements that managers do not give orders and do not make decisions are false (White and Griffith, 2010).
2. It is possible to evaluate the contribution of senior leaders while carrying out the analysis of the motivational theories they choose and the effectiveness of these theories.
Scholars outline the following theories of motivation in management: incentive theory of motivation, arousal theory of motivation, drive theory of motivtion, and humanistic theory of motivation. In accordance with the incentive theory of motivation, external rewards, a monetary reward in particular, are the core motivating factors for employees. Also, such aspects as reinforcement and association play a significant role in this motivation theory. In the drive theory of motivation,the core motivating factor for carrying out particular actions is theinternal tension, which is caused by the unmet needs’ reduction. Arousal theory of motivation stipulates that people carry out some activities when they have an inspiration; in case the arousal level is low, the rate of effectiveness is minimized (White and Griffith, 2010).
In the humanistic theory of motivation, people consider that they have cognitive reasons for the various actions they do. Such concept is presented in the Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs. While discussing the core motivating factors applied in healthcare establishments, in the light of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, it is important to consider the healthcare services that are provided within the system. It is obvious that there is a set of opportunities of self-development, getting knowledge and their application in the professional activities of medical workers. Generally, a career path of each person should meet his or her requirements and bring satisfaction, and, of course, bring the highest results to society and to the person. A successful employee is the one who is ‘on his/her place’ (Quinn, 2000).
Consequently, it is important to represent the analysis of the healthcare organisations employees’ career motivation while taking into account the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and opportunities provided to employees of a particular industry.
First of all, the work in this industry provides people with the opportunity for self-realization and development and there are future perspectives of career growth. The work in the sphere of human relations belongs to the field of work called “human-human”. It is considered to be one of the most complicated and unpredictable spheres of professional activities and it requires knowledge of psychology, competence in the medicine, and ability to understand the needs and interests of patients (Lussier & Achua, 2010).
Since the professional activity of the healthcare system employees is related to the communications, the employees are provided with the possibility to work in accordance with one’s own initiative and to be given a certain amount of responsibility. That is why it is possible to make a conclusion that the possibility of self-realization and self-actualization is a core motivating factor for the educational system employees. According to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, the effectiveness of the work and the contribution of a particular leader may be evaluated by the rate of employees’ self realization (Leithwood, 1999).
3. It is possible to define thebalanced scorecard(BSC) as a strategy in performance management. It is a structured report of semi-standards, which is mainly assisted by the automation tools and design methods. Managers of healthcare establishments may apply this method to monitor the execution of activities (O'Brien, 2003).
In addition, in order to carry out the performance evaluation, the business intelligence (BI) system may be applied by the governing board. BI includes all possible methods, concepts, tools, and possibilities of business improvement based on support systems (Power, 2007). Nowadays, the BI is the computer based and operated system of the problem definition, business information collecting, treatment and decision making assistance, and for organisational performance management – selecting several possible variants for a particular problem and finally, making the predictive analysis of these decisions.
In order to make an objective evaluation of the influence of the balanced scorecardBSC on healthcare organizations, it is important to carry out the investigation of this impact on all three levels of the healthcare organization management system (White and Griffith, 2010)..
On the strategic level, all processes of the information investigation, its treatment, and correct decision making are possible in case of having good business intelligence software and a skillfully organized informational system. That is why it is important to be responsible for all actions, which take place in the decision making process (Stanford-Smith, 2000).
On the tactical level, it is very important to pay attention to the legislative basis changing, to take in account the entire set of paperwork, and to organize the control over the execution of agreements.
On the operational level, a well-organized informational system will assist a manager in all key aspects of the healthcare organizations’ work. It will enable the manager to monitor the main processes from the personal computer or have a personal access to the online system from every NAP (Deams, 1994).