“Corruption is the illicit use of one’s position or power for perceived personal or collective gain. […] Examples include embezzlement, insider trading, the padding of one’s expenses, paying a bribe to get a contract, altering a financial document.” (Ronald, 2011) Corruption exists everywhere, be it a well-developed country, or a developing one, it is either in the public, private sector or non-profit, charitable organization, in small businesses as well as in big ones. It appeared as a result of poverty and the desire of a personal benefit; greed is also one of the major factors. Individuals cheat so that they can have an advantage and that is why corruption develops. Although it begins with the individual, it spreads to other participants.
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Corruption may occur in many situations, such as unclear policies and procedures, not adequate employee training, unclear communication and reporting lines, inadequate management, high level of discretion of employees, lack of ethical standards. Corruption also tends to increase in situations of uneven economic growth, weak civil society, low political competition, during the rapid modernization, lack of social stratification, etc.
The corruption can arise under a variety of circumstances. For example, bribes can influence on getting different types of government contracts, such enefits as obtaining licenses, permits, certain goods. They can also be used to get access to privileged schools, attractive enterprises, subsidized medical care, etc. Bribes can help to lower the quantity of taxes, fees, duties; they can speed different licenses, permissions; influence the outcome of legal, regulatory processes.
Corruption “kills” human dignity and drives poverty. Corruption has a huge effect on the community. As a result of it, political or any other public sector is governed by unsuitable people, subsequent job positions and places in high institutions are also occupied by unworthy candidates. It can also cause a lack of goods and services – starting with not qualified education to lack of essential medication; pushing up prices, lowering choice against public interest.
It is very important to eliminate corruption. Many countries have a special Anti-Corruption Action Plan, various strategies to prevent bribes; they have effective procedures and transparent rules. One of such rules is hiring and promotion honest, competitive and independent officials, and their adequate remuneration, strict control and regulation on conflicts within the organizations, avoiding conflicts of interests, different training on ethical conduct and risks of corruption, enforcement of conduction, duties to report on liabilities and many others. It is very important too provide business ethics information and corporate codes of ethics to employees. “If employees trust their employer, theft is likely to be low. Managers can help to balance trust and control of employees. Every country in the world views bribery as a criminal act, yet bribery, though varying across countries, is commonplace. In all countries corruption eventually becomes routinized and accepted. […] Many countries believe in second chance. Thus, individuals convicted of engaging in criminal, fraudulent or any corrupt behaviour have opportunities for recovering. […] While having some common elements, individual and organisation recoveries from act of corruption and bad behaviour also have some differences. Both need to acknowledge the damage done and offer to fix it, […] both individuals and companies have to earn back trust. But, unlike companies, individuals have no one to blame but themselves” (Ronald, 2011). If the corruption has already been done, it is important to “discover the facts, accept a fair punishment, and make rehabilitative changes”. (Ronald, 2011)
It is really possible to create strong human values and follow them, despite all the pressures, competitive business and seduction to make an act of corruption. The goal is to try to provide qualified, professional work in all possible spheres and by all means.